Заработок денег на киви без вложений в играх
The seductive risk of a tontine is one of its defining features - a feature that may sorely be needed today, for entirely different reasons. The American twist on the tontine emerged in 1859.
Hyde, who founded what is now the insurance company AXA Equitable Life, designed a hybrid tontine that blended life insurance with a retirement scheme. The life insurance part was standard; the retirement scheme was pure tontine. As people got older and older, their retirement payments would escalate as more of their peers died. Игра в пасьянс на деньги без вложений retirement tontine came at a critical moment, says заработок денег на киви без вложений в играх historian Richard Sutch.
The American economy was rapidly industrializing, which was creating a new problem: What to do with all the old people. But the new urban factory jobs were completely different.
There were banks, but the interest rates were disappointing. Furthermore, there was the заработок денег на киви без вложений в играх that a man might outlive his savings. The tontine, which offered to pay you until you died, was a comforting guarantee. The fact that the payments would grow over time was an added perk. For regular retirees, tontine arrangements paid better than any other заработок денег на киви без вложений в играх investment.
For financial institutions, they were a much-needed hit product. The popularity of tontines would be their downfall. Tontines raised so much money for insurance companies that the industry attracted intense scrutiny. Much of the suspicion was warranted. There was rampant shadiness back in the day, including countless swindles perpetrated on the public, both related and unrelated to the tontine.
Bribery of newspapers and politicians was also routine, as was embezzlement and plain theft. The nature of the tontine also made many uneasy. In 1906, New York state launched a major investigation into the игры онлайн играть бесплатно на деньги market that resulted мелбет онлайн рулетка the banning of tontines.
As Sutch, the economist, and his colleague Roger Ransom argue, this was an overreaction. They wrote in a 1987 paper:Soon, other states were passing their own bans, and the tontine would not be heard from again.
The demise of the American tontine, Sutch says, may well be credited for the rise of another peculiarly American institution: the corporate pension.
But today, with pensions on the decline, there are few guarantees left in modern retirement. Most people now rely on Social Security and savings accounts.
A common headache is figuring out how slowly retirees вложить деньги в игру онлайн spend their nest eggs. Economists have long said that the rational thing to do is to buy an annuity. For decades, economists have been trying to figure out why. A number of theories have been advanced - people might like to leave some money for their children, or they заработок денег на киви без вложений в играх worry about medical expenses late in life.
Poterba and his colleagues have also pointed out that Social Security is already like an annuity, promising constant payments for life.]